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Circular Shaft Example: Secant Pile Wall (English Units)

Circular Shaft Example: 20ft Excavation - Secant Pile Wall


In this example we will design secant pile wall circular shaft, supporting a 20ft excavation. The model and analysis have been designed with DeepEX - Shoring Design Software.


A. Project Description


In this example we will design secant pile wall circular shaft, supporting a 20ft excavation. The Figure below presents the project model. Tables 1 and 2 present the soil properties and the stratigraphy respectively. Table 3 presents the external loads. Tables 4 and 5 present the wall and support properties respectively. The general ground surface is at El. 0ft and the general water table is at El. -50 ft.


xcircularshaft_model_1_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.wjIXCQbj_U.webp

Figure: Project model.


Table 1: Soil properties.


Soil properties

Table 2: Stratigraphy.

Soil Layer

Elevation (ft)

OCR

Ko

F

-0

1

0.577

C

-5

1

0.515

S1

-18

1

0.47

S2

-27

1

0.441


Table 3: External loads.

Load

Load Type

Start Point

End Point

Load Magnitude

Load 1

Strip Surcharge

(-51,0)

(-1,0)

0.6 kips


Table 4: Wall parameters.

Pile width

1.72 ft

Steel pile section

W12x96

Secant pile spacing

1.22 ft

Steel

A50

Wall depth

60 ft


Table 5: Support parameters.


 

Cap Beam

Ring Beam

Thickness

3 ft

1.5 ft

Depth

3 ft

1.5 ft

Elevation on the wall

Top of the wall

-10 ft




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B. Modeling with DeepEX


The model will be created using the DeepEX Model Wizard:


  • Define Analysis Methods:


xanalysismethod_lem_nl.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.UETx7MlUiH.webp

Figure: Analysis Methods in DeepEX Wizard.


In this dialog, we choose to apply the combination method to our model (Limit Equilibrium and Non-Linear). For the classical earth pressures in design stages with multiple support levels we define FHWA apparent pressures and for the beam analysis we choose CALTRANS method. The combination method will first run the Limit Equilibrium Analysis and calculate the wall embedment FS, and then will run the Non-Linear Analysis and present these results on the tables and on the model area graphically.


  • Define project type and dimensions


xcircularshaft_wizard_1_model_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.0-H7QMcvgl.webp

Figure: Project Type and Dimensions in DeepEX Wizard.


In this dialog we select the project type (in this case we select the option to create a circular shaft model). Next, we define the project dimensions (final excavation depth, walls depth, excavation width, top of the wall elevation and water table). 


  • Define soil types and stratigraphy


xwizardgeneral_all_2.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.YvX0Rxke6o (1).webp

Figure: Soil Properties and Soil Layers in DeepEX Wizard.


xwizardgeneral_englishunits_2_3.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.pza1gAf8K0.webp

Figure: Soil Properties and Soil Layers dialogs in DeepEX.


In these dialogs we can define the required soil types and the properties for each created soil, as well as, the model stratigraphy by defining the top of the soil layer elevation and the soil type in each layer.


  • Define wall type and wall section properties


xsecant_piles_tiebacks_excavation_deepex_englishunits_wizard_2_1.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.Hburt9KKyl.webp

Figure: Wall types in DeepEX Wizard.


xsecant_piles_tiebacks_excavation_deepex_englishunits_wizard_2_2.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.SVRK5HL2HM.webp

Figure: Wall Sections dialog in DeepEX.


In these dialogs we select the wall section type (in this case reinforced concrete diaphragm walls), the wall reinforcement, the wall spacing and the concrete – steel materials.


  • Supports


xcircularshaft_wizard_2_supports_eng.jpg__1170x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.PDkhuSdXcV.webp

In this dialog, we define the dimensions of the supports we wish to use in the model. We will use a cap beam and a ring beam at EL: -10 ft. We check the support types and we define the support dimensions.


  • Define Stages – Support Elevations


xcircularshaft_wizard_3_stages_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.YZJie77Rq2.webp

Figure: Support Elevations in DeepEX Wizard.


In this dialog, we define the depth from the surface or each support level, as well as, the depth below each support level where we wish to excavate in the stages, before the support is installed. The software automatically calculates all elevations (excavations and support installation levels) of these defined depths and generates all intermediate construction stages.

  • Define Surcharge


xwizardgeneral_englishunits_3.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.fvwf6nlGEA.webp

Figure: Support Elevations in DeepEX Wizard.


In this dialog we define the surcharge type and properties, as well as the surcharge modeling options. In this case we will use a 0.6 kips strip surcharge, developed for 50 ft, starting 1ft behind the left wall. After the model is automatically generated by the software wizard, we can access the stages in the model area and add any required additional loads graphically, using the Draw Loads options in the General tab of DeepEX.


  • Define structural codes:


xwizardgeneral_englishunits_4.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.Jk9-2207hu.webp

Figure: Structural Codes in DeepEX Wizard.


In this dialog, we can define the structural and geotechnical design codes that we wish to assign to this model. In this case, we will use US allowable settings for steel design and ACI for concrete.


The software automatically creates all project construction stages, according to our selections in the Model Wizard. The following Figures present the models in Stage 3:



xcircularshaft_model_1_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.wjIXCQbj_U.webp

Figure: Generated Model – Stage 3.


 

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Design Methods

Design Methods


Several design methods for the wall beam analysis and various geotechnical standards are implemented!



 

C. Circular Shaft Analysis and Results

Since the model is ready, we can choose to calculate the design section, pressing on the button


Selected design


After the analysis is succeeded, the Summary table appears. The table below includes some critical checks and values for each construction stage. The last columns of the Analysis and Checking summary Table, present the Circular Shaft results (Hoop Buckling Safety actor, Hoop Force etc). The following figures present some graphical results from the results tab of DeepEX.


Table: DeepEX critical results/stage


xcircularshaft_results_1_table_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.KK81ASw9Qn.webp

Table: DeepEX critical results/stage - Hoop Results


xcircularshaft_results_2_tablehoop_eng.jpg__1170x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.840lu9Q-Y0.webpxcircularshaft_results_2_tablehoop_eng.jpg__1170x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.840lu9Q-Y0.webp

xcircularshaft_results_3_moment_hoopforce_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.5dQhrcmve0.webp

Figure: Wall moment and hoop force diagrams, Stage 3.


xcircularshaft_results_4_hoop_soilstresses_eng.jpg__800x0_q85_subsampling-2_upscale.jpg.pagespeed.ic.ZE4HG-6f09.webp

Figure: Wall deflections and soil pressures diagrams, Stage 3.


 

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Projects designed with DeepEX

$2 Billion Hudson Yards, New York

Circular wet soil mix shaft, Florida

Soldier Pile Wall in Manhattan, NY

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