Several international design codes have adopted either the Service Limit State, or the Ultimate Limit State procedure for the design of deep excavations.
The Allowable Stress Design method is widely used in the US and other countries. It recommends the reduction of structural and geotechnical capacities, through the application of safety factors. AASHTO LRFD (which is the general governing design code for bridges and other highway structures in the United States) dictates that all structures shall be designed for specified limit states to achieve the objectives of constructability, safety, and serviceability. These design factors also apply to the design of earth retention systems such as vertical pile walls, gravity walls, etc. In AASHTO LRFD the load combinations are described as Limit States. Further AASHTO differentiates between Strength and Extreme limit states.
In Europe and in many other parts of the world, Eurocode 7 (Ultimate Limit State Design) recommends that the designer examines a number of different Design Approaches (DA-1, DA-2, DA-3) so that the most critical condition is determined. In Eurocode 7 soil strengths are readjusted according to the material “M” tables, surcharges and permanent actions are readjusted according to the action “A” tables, and resistances are modified according to the “R” tabulated values.
DeepEX handles the following checks according to EC7:
STR: Structural design/equilibrium checks
GEO: Geotechnical equilibrium checks
HYD: Hydraulic heave cases
The following recorded webinar video covers a comparison between Service Limit State and Ultimate Limit State (EC7) design of several cases. We also explain how the tools of our software program, DeepEX, can be used for the quick evaluation of different scenarios, as well as, for the efficient model optimization.
B. Presentation Video
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Several design methods for the wall beam analysis and various geotechnical standards are implemented!
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Structural and Geotechnical design of Deep Excavations.
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