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Analysis of a Deep Excavation in Shanghai Soft Clay

Analysis of a deep excavation in Shanghai soft clay

A deep multistrutted metro station excavation in Shanghai soft clay was reanalyzed with the DeepEX software program. The observed responses of the diaphragm walls and the ground surface were originally presented in a paper by G.B. Liu & J. Jiang from Tongji University, Shanghai, China and C.W.W. Ng from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR.


In the original publication, the measured diaphragm wall deflections and ground settlements were compared with some case histories in Shanghai and excavations in soft clay in other locations in Asia. The purpose of this analysis is to reanalyze the model with DeepEX software and compare the program estimated results with the presented measured deflections.


Figure: Cross section 1-1

Surface El: +3.7 m , Water Table El: +2.7 m



Figure: Soil profile in publication

Table: Assumed soil properties in deep excavation reanalysis

Assumed soil properties


Structural properties

Figure: Wall Properties

Support Properties

Figure: Support Properties


We have simulated this excavation model with our shoring design software program, DeepEX. In DeepEX we can simulate all construction stages in the same project file, so we can monitor and analyze each stage. The following figure presents the final excavation stage.


Figure: Model Simulated in DeepEX

According to the original publication, there is a 3m compaction grouting below the final excavation to increase the soil strength in this part. We simulated this compaction grouting in DeepEX by assigning a soil change command, that allowed us to apply a stiffness multiplier in all stages on the resisting side (excavation side).


Figure: Soil Change Commands in DeepEX – Assign Stiffness Multiplier


The Nonlinear analysis in DeepEX software estimates a maximum wall displacement of 5.03 cm in the final excavation stage. The following figure presents the calculated wall moments and wall deflection diagrams.


Figure: DeepEX – Final Excavation Depth – Calculated Wall Moments and Wall Deflections

According to the original publication, seventeen inclinometers were used to monitor lateral wall displacements. The maximum measured wall displacement at the final excavation depth (see following figure) was 5.45 cm, verifying the DeepEX calculated wall lateral deflections!


Figure: Maximum Measured Wall Displacements at Final Excavation Depth


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DeepEX - Shoring Design Software

DeepEX - Shoring Design Software

DeepEX is the ultimate software program for design and analysis of Deep Excavations! Design any wall type and support system in the most efficient way!

  • Structural and Geotechnical Design

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  • Limit Equilibrium - Non-Linear - Finite Element Analysis

  • 2D Design Sections  - 3D Frame Analysis



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