Cost options are available with the Cost Estimations additional optional module within DeepEX. We can either calculate project costs with the general calculation of the project, or we can choose to estimate cost without wall analysis. We can select to define the cost estimation options from the Optimize tab of DeepEX. The cost options dialog appears (Figure 9.1.1). In this dialog we can define several cost properties and options that should be considered to better estimate the project cost. The cost module does not produce exact costs. It is used to produce rough project cost estimations. The main idea is that costs are subdivided into installation and material costs. Installation costs include labor and equipment while material costs refer to the actual material cost as delivered on site.
Figure 9.1.1: Open cost estimation options dialog
As previously mentioned, the DeepEX cost module is not supposed to produce an exact project cost. The main idea behind the module is to be able for each individual to quickly evaluate the effect on pricing of various alternatives. Cost profile can be customized and stored in a database. Taking into consideration as many parameters as possible, DeepEX produces a first order approximate cost estimate.
City Multipliers: Define basic city and country cost multipliers. A cost multiplier is a factor that can account for local city or state variations compared to the standard database. These factors are expressed as percentages. In most cases we should use 100%. In the same tab we can select the currency.
Figure 9.1.2: Edit location, city multipliers and currency
Wall: Define cost data for wall construction works (installation and materials).
Figure 9.1.3: Edit the wall cost parameters (labor and materials)
Tiebacks: Installation and material costs for ground anchors (tiebacks).
Figure 9.1.4: Edit the tieback cost parameters (labor and materials)
Struts: Material and installation costs for struts (and rakers).
Figure 9.1.5: Edit the strut cost parameters (labor and materials)
Slabs: Installation and material costs for slab supports.
Figure 9.1.6: Edit the slab cost parameters (labor and materials)
Wales: Installation costs for steel wale beams and supports.
Figure 9.1.7: Edit the waler cost parameters (labor and materials)
Excavation: Installation costs for excavation and backfilling works.
Figure 9.1.8: Edit the excavation cost parameters (labor and materials)
Dewatering: Installation and operation costs for dewatering (approximate).
Figure 9.1.9: Edit the dewatering cost parameters (labor and materials)
Calculations: Overall cost options for mobilization, profit, perimeter lengths (when 2D sections are used), construction days.
Figure 9.1.10: Edit miscellaneous cost parameters
In order to perform cost estimation, the option “Estimate project cost” in the Optimize tab of DeepEX should be selected. After the model analysis, user can review the calculated costs in the Analysis and checking summary table, under the section “Cost summary”.
Figure 9.1.11: Review cost estimation results
The Export drawings to DXF additional, optional module enables us to export all 2D sections to DXF, saving a respected amount of time and effort to create the project sketches. The software exports all design sections, wall sections and top site view to DXF, which is a file format that can be opened and edited with any CAD software.
We can easily manage the sketch export through a robust dialog, which loads by pressing the “DXF Drawings” button on the left side of the main software screen. The purchase and activation of the Export drawings to DXF additional module is required to use these features.
Figure 9.2.1: Open the DXF drawings dialog
In the Design Sections tab of the export to DXF dialog, user can create the DXF files containing the DXF drawings for each stage of the selected design section. The following options are available:
Select Design Section
Option to render inactive supports
Option to render dimensions
Option to render soil
Option to Render boring
Option to render all stages (this selection deactivates the Select stage option and activates the number of columns).
Set the scale
Figure 9.2.2: DXF drawings dialog – Design sections tab
In the Wall Sections tab of the export to DXF dialog, user can review and export to DXF all created wall sections that are included in the model. There is the option to show extended wall information on the model.
Figure 9.2.3: DXF drawings dialog – Wall sections tab
In the sketch view tab of the export to DXF dialog, user can create the DXF files containing the sketch view of each stage of the selected design section. The following options are available:
Option to render inactive supports
Option to highlight new supports
Option to render all stages (this selection deactivates the Select stage option and activates the number of columns).
Option to show/hide elevation axes
Figure 9.2.4: DXF drawings dialog – Sketch view tab
In the results diagrams tab of the export to DXF dialog, user can create the DXF files containing various results diagrams of each stage of the selected design section. The following options are available:
Option to consolidate pressure diagrams
Option keep uniform pressure scale
Option to render all stages (this selection deactivates the Select stage option and activates the number of columns).
Option to place diagrams after cut off
Option to show/hide elevation axes
Figure 9.2.5: DXF drawings dialog – Result diagrams tab
By pressing the button “Settings” on the bottom left part of the DXF Grawings dialog, the DXF view settings dialog appears, where we can define several settings for the sketches (layers, scales, dimensioning options, fonts and more).
Figure 9.2.6: DXF drawings dialog – DXF view settings
The 3D frame analysis additional, optional module enables us to design excavations supported by walers, struts and tiebacks. The 3D definitions consist of an external project perimeter and an excavation perimeter. A wall perimeter is typically assigned to the excavation perimeter, with the possibility of assigning a different wall section (relating to a design section) on each wall segment (between nodes). Walers are attached to wall segments, and different loads along the waler from different design sections can be defined. Once the walers are in place, struts can be drawn between walers and the excavation shoring can be analyzed. Based on the analysis results, DeepEX will pick up the load from each design section and Figure out reactions and stress checks on walers, struts and ground anchors.
The frame module works better for box shaped excavations, additional modelling maybe required for re-entrant corners or special conditions. Some simplifying assumptions are made regarding how axial loads are distributed. Currently the software does not include any reductions in axial force in walers due to static friction or other effects.
Figure 9.3.1: 3D Model with struts and walers in DeepEX
In order to use the 3D Model feature of DeepEX, we first need to create at least one 2D design section in DeepEX with loads and all design stages (see Figure 9.4.1). The 2D design sections are used for the calculation of soil pressures and external loads that are applied on the walls of the 3D project perimeter. Ideally, each wall segment loaded by different external loads (traffic loads, construction loads, nearby buildings), or with different soil conditions, should be represented by a wall in a 2D section.
Figure 9.4.1: 2D design sections
A single wall of a specific design section can be used to generate the 3D model, with the use of the 3D model wizard (see Figure 9.4.2). In the Wizard, we can select the wall we wish to use to model all the walls of a rectangular perimeter. The walls on the 3D model will have the same wall section, support types and bracing levels, as the initially selected wall.
Figure 9.4.2: Open 3D model wizard
In the first tab of the DeepEX model wizard we have to define the length of each side of a rectangular excavation. The software will generate the perimeter nodes based on these lengths, placing a node on each corner of the rectangular wall perimeter. User can afterwards access these nodes and define the correct node position, defining any non-rectangular perimeter shape.
Figure 9.4.3: Define rectangular excavation perimeter side dimensions
In the second tab of the DeepEX model wizard we have to specify the wall from all walls simulated in the created 2D sections, which will be used to model all walls of the 3D perimeter. In the same tab we can define the distance from each corner node of each support, as a percentage of the support spacing as defined in the selected 2D section.
|NOTE: DeepEX will place the support closest to each corner at the defined position. The remaining distance will be distributed between the supports, so the support spacing will be adjusted. In this case, the spacing defined in the 2D section will work as a maximum spacing.|
Figure 9.4.4: Select a wall and define the location of each support from each corner
In the tabs wall perimeter and topographical of the DeepEX model wizard, we can select to create a new wall perimeter and 3D surface or modify the existing.
Figure 9.4.5: Edit/create new wall perimeter and 3D surface
In the last tab of the DeepEX model wizard, we can select to create either a model with continuous walers, or a model with bracing levels without walers.
Figure 9.4.6: Create a model with walers or with bracing levels without walers
The DeepEX 3D model wizard initially creates the 3D surface simulating each support level as a bracing level. User can access and review the supports of each support level from the left side of the main screen.
Figure 9.4.7: Review supports on each bracing level
As described in section 9.4, we can use the created 2D design sections and the 3D model wizard in order to create a rectangular excavation perimeter. The software creates initially 4 nodes, placing one at each rectangular corner. The first node, N0, it always placed at the bottom left corner, and the original N0 coordinates are (X=0, Y=0). The other nodes are named clockwise and the coordinates are defined by the original rectangular shape dimensions, defined by the user in the 3D model wizard.
After the 3D model is generated, we can access each node on the 3D model area (take the mouse over the node), double-click on the node and define the exact node coordinates, editing the node position. The wall perimeter and walers will be readjusted, using the new node positions. The supports will keep the same position they had on each waler, so the support spacing will be modified.
Figure 9.5.1: Edit 3D node position
Using the “Insert a node” (scissors) tool from the toolbar, right below the 3D model wizard area on the left side of the main screen, we can click on any wall perimeter position on the model area. A new node will be inserted on the point we selected, and we can define the exact node position.
Figure 9.5.2: Add new 3D nodes on the wall perimeter
All the walls of the wall perimeter receive the structural section, stresses, and bracing levels from the original wall of a certain design section, selected by the user in the 3D model wizard during the initial rectangular wall perimeter creation. Basically, all the walls are initially the same, receiving the same stresses. We can later double-click on each surrounding wall and assign a different wall from a different (or the same) 2D design section. The wall structural section will be automatically updated, using the section of the new selected wall. Also, the wall on the 3D model will be loaded by the selected wall/2D design section soil stresses and external loads.
Figure 9.6.1: Assign a different wall/2D section on a selected perimeter wall
|NOTE: Selecting the option “Use different design section and wall from wall perimeter” is important, in order to change the section of the selected wall only. Not selecting this option and changing the wall/2D section, will cause all the perimeter walls to change as well.|
The DeepEX 3D model wizard can create a model with all walers (see section 9.4 – Figure 9.4.6). These walers are originally continuous, from node to node along each perimeter wall. In DeepEX, we can access the walls on the 3D perimeter (double-click on them), and create bracing levels. The bracing levels are actually virtual lines that are supposed to host walers or supports. We can create unlimited number of such bracing levels, defining the position and elevation.
Figure 9.7.1: Generate bracing levels along a wall from the selected 2D section
Figure 9.7.2: Add new bracing levels along a wall
Supports and walers can be added on the created levels. User can access the wall and select to add a waler to a selected bracing level, add a single anchor or generate multiple anchors (either per pile or in a certain spacing along a selected bracing level).
Figure 9.7.3: Add a waler on a bracing level
Figure 9.7.4: Create tiebacks along a bracing level
Defining Waler Properties
When a 3D model with walers is created, we can double-click on each waler on the 3D model area and edit the selected waler properties. Initially we should define the waler name, elevation and structural section. By pressing the button “Edit”, we can update the list of available waler structural sections (see section 3.13).
A waler can be attached to a bracing level of a specific wall segment. If no bracing levels are created, then the waler will be applied to the whole length of a wall segment.
Figure 9.8.1: Define waler name, structural section and bracing level
Next, we can define the waler connection type on each waler end. A waler end can be either free (with or without reaction from the following wall), or connected to another waler which we can specify. In the local “Connection Options” tab, we can also specify how the waler will be connected to the following one.
Figure 9.8.2: Define waler end connection type
On the right side of the dialog we can define the waler analysis options. We can define if the waler will be loaded with point or distributed loads from the wall, if we will take into consideration the axial waler load reduction because of the interface friction and the waler unsupported length (braced at support locations or user-defined). Finally we can select if the waler section will be placed in a specific angle from horizontal along the wall.
Figure 9.8.3: Define waler analysis options
Defining Loading Patterns across a Waler
Sometimes the wall is not loaded with the same stresses along the whole wall length (i.e. in cases of big differences on stratigraphy along the wall or in cases with big loads concentrated close to a wall part of the whole wall length). In such cases, we could simulate a specific wall in more than one design sections, simulating the different segments of the same wall. In such cases, if we wish to apply different loads along the same wall on the 3D model, we can use the loading patterns.
By double-clicking on a waler in the 3D model area, we can access the tab “Loading patterns”. There we can define sets of load patterns, defining the length of each pattern and the design section/support that will be used to force the wall along the specified length.
Figure 9.8.4: Assign load patterns along a waler
When a 3D model with supports is created, we can double-click on each support on the 3D model area and edit the selected support properties.
|IMPORTANT: We have to pay attention to the examined support level, which can be selected from the left side of the main screen (see Section 9.4 - Figure 9.4.7).|
Editing Strut Properties
By double-clicking on a strut in the model area we can edit the selected strut properties. In the dialog that appears we can define the strut name, structural section and end strut positions along walers. The strut follows the elevation of the specific bracing level.
|NOTE: We can access and update the local project strut section database and assign a strut section from the drop-down list.|
Figure 9.9.1: Define strut name and structural section
The struts are attached to waler segments that have 3D nodes on each waler end. In the 3D Struts dialog, we can specify the position of each strut end along the waler the strut is attached to, by defining the distance of the strut end from one of the waler’s end 3D nodes. If needed, we can also define a connection plate between the strut and the waler on each strut end.
Finally, on the right side of the 3D Struts dialog, we can review and modify the construction stages each strut is activated in. Initially this follows the construction staging from the 2D section that was used to generate the 3D model.
Figure 9.9.2: Define strut end positions along walers and connection plates
Editing Tieback Properties
By double-clicking on a tieback in the model area we can edit the selected support properties. In the dialog that appears we can define the tieback name, structural section, free and fixed lengths, vertical and in-plan rotations and end position along walers or bracing levels. The tieback follows the elevation of the specific bracing level.
The tiebacks are attached to waler segments that have 3D nodes on each waler end, or they can be placed along a bracing level. In the 3D Anchors dialog, we can specify the position of the tieback along the waler the tieback is attached to, by defining the distance of the tieback from one of the waler’s end 3D nodes. When we use bracing levels instead of walers, we need to specify the position of the tieback along the bracing level. If needed, we can also define a connection plate between the tieback and the waler.
Figure 9.9.3: Define tieback properties on a 3D frame model
On a 3D model area we can draw additional supports if required, using the draw supports tools on the left side of the main area. Single strut and tiebacks can be easily added by selecting a tool and drawing the supports. We can define the support properties (exact location, structural section etc.) in the dialogs that appear right after the support is added.
Figure 9.10.1: Define tieback properties on a 3D frame model
|IMPORTANT: We have to be very careful to install the support at the desired bracing elevation and the correct support installation stage. The support is activated from the stage we draw it in.|
As presented in section 9.7, we can access all surrounding walls on the model area and create bracing levels (either generate bracing levels for each wall from the selected design section – Figure 9.7.1, or manually add new bracing levels and define level length, position and elevation along each wall – Figure 9.7.2). In the Draw toolbar, we can select the option “Draw a waler strut configuration from one bracing line to another”. In the dialog that appears, we can define the number of struts per waler segment, the length of the waler and the strut spacing on it. We can also define the wale and strut structural sections. Next, we can click on each wall (where we defined already a bracing line) and the selected strut-wale configuration will be added.
Figure 9.10.2: Select to create a waler-strut configuration
Figure 9.10.3: Draw and edit a waler-strut configuration
|NOTE: In order to perform the 3D model analysis, the 2D sections that are assigned to the perimeter walls need to be analyzed first.|
Reviewing 3D Model Results in Table
After selecting to perform the 3D analysis, the 3D calculation summary table appears. This table includes information and results for all structural items on the model (walers, struts, tiebacks) for all construction stages, and a total project cost estimation summary.
In the tab Summary of the 3D frame calculation summary, we can review the most critical results (moments, shears, axial forces, structural and geotechnical ratios) for all structural items among all construction stages.
Figure 9.11.1: Review 3D frame results – Most critical results for all structural members
In the following tabs (Wale results, Strut results and Anchor results), user can select a specific structural item (waler, strut or tieback respectively) and review the most critical results (moments, reactions, structural rations and checks) of the selected item, in each construction stage the item is activated.
Figure 9.11.2: Review 3D frame results – Results of each structural member per stage
The tab Cost Estimate includes all cost estimation results for the analyzed model. This tab includes subcategories (total cost vs stage and individual costs – Wall, support, walers, excavation and dewatering costs).
Figure 9.11.3: Review 3D frame results – Total and wall costs per stage
Reviewing 3D Model Results on the Model Area
After closing the 3D calculation summary table, we can review several results graphically on the model area for each bracing elevation. We can select to present the waler moment, shear, axial and displacement diagrams and we can select to review the structural ratios for all supports.
Figure 9.11.4: Review 3D frame results – Waler graphs on the model area
Figure 9.11.5: Review 3D frame results – Support reactions and ratios on the model area
When we double-click on a wall in the 3D model area, we can select the option “Edit wall items”. The Wall perimeter designer appears. In this dialog we can review the site plan view and the side views for each wall of the wall perimeter, edit the wall perimeter items positions and depths and select to export the plan view and side views to DXF (the Export Drawings to DXF additional optional module is required for this action).
Creating and Editing Wall Items
If we wish to edit any wall item, we first have to select a wall on the plan view and choose to Auto-Generate wall items. This action will update the list with new items, each one representing a pile. By accessing an item, we can update the item position, dimensions and depth. Pressing the button “Update Item” will cause the item on the plan and side views to be updated.
Figure 9.12.1: Create and edit wall items
Exporting Plan and Elevation Views to DXF
By right-clicking on the plan and on the side (elevation view), we can select to export the drawings to DXF. The generated files can be opened and modified in any CAD software, saving us a big amount of time and effort to create all project sketches.
Figure 9.12.2: Export plan view to DXF
Figure 9.12.3: Export elevation view to DXF
Any 3D model created with DeepEX 3D Frame analysis additional optional module can be exported in a hologram (the Export to HoloDeepEX additional optional module is required for this function). The holographic models can be reviewed with our free viewer, HoloDeepEX, which can be downloaded from the Windows Store.
The exported holographic model can be very useful, both to impress the client and show how the final project would look like, and to check any construction issues on the project site (positions of tiebacks related to nearby building foundations, positions of utilities and piles etc.).
Exporting a Holographic Model
First we would need to create a 3D model in the DeepEX software model area and define all wall and support properties (the 3D Frame additional optional module is required). Next, from the left side of the main screen we can select the option to export the holographic model, or view it in HoloDeepEX without export (the HoloDeepEX viewer should be downloaded from Window Store). HoloDeepEX can operate in Windows 10 desktop PCs, mixed reality headsets, or Microsoft HoloLens. Independent graphics card (1060 or greater) is recommended but not required.
Figure 9.13.1: Options to export or view a holographic model
Viewing Model in Desktop
HoloDeepEX can open in any desktop or laptop PC that has Windows 10. We can go through the stages with voice commands or with the PC mouse and keyboard. Mouse can also assist as walk around the project area, zoom in and out and in general navigate on the project site and review the staged construction from all possible angles.
Figure 9.13.2: Mouse and keyboard functions in HoloDeepEX
Figure 9.13.3: Review a holographic model in HoloDeepEX – Struts and building
Figure 9.13.4: Review tieback configurations and building foundations in HoloDeepEX
Virtual Reality in Underground Construction
Virtual reality enables us to simulate a 3D physical environment, and potentially interact with digital objects within the virtual space. In a virtual reality set we would need to utilize a VR ready headset. These headsets totally block off our real world view and as a result we are only immersed in the virtual environment. VR headsets work by displaying slightly different images on the right and left eyes and thus creating the illusion of a 3D environment. With current VR systems we can move around our 3D model by using dedicated controllers with our hands.
|It is generally recommended to avoid sudden movements in virtual reality environments as these can result in nausea.|
HoloDeepEx can be opened through the mixed reality portal as a standard application. Initially we are located in the lobby where we can open a file, open the last exported project or select a demo project. When in the main view we can look at the controller tooltips where all the available commands are displayed.
Figure 9.13.5: HoloDeepEX lobby – select to open a project
Figure 9.13.6: Controller functions in HoloDeepEX
Figure 9.13.7: Stage navigation in HoloDeepEX
Augmented Reality in Underground Construction
Augmented reality works by superimposing 3D digital objects in relation to the physical world. This works by having an augmented reality device scan a physical space and then creating an internal digital representation of this space that the AR device understands. An augmented reality headset is typically equipped with a series of cameras that continuously detect the real space around us. Once digital objects are placed, the device keeps their position locked in space (unless these objects are instructed to move). As a result, we are able to physically move around the digital objects that we have placed in the real 3D world.
In underground construction this could involve placing existing utilities, tunnels, or future piling in the actual field conditions before anything is being built. Alternatively, as we have done in HoloDeepEX, a model of an excavation can be prepared and we can physically move around our augmented reality deep excavation model.
HoloDeepEX environment can be accessed with augmented reality headsets (such as Hololens). The glasses originally scan the environment and place the model in real space or under scale. We can use voice commands to edit the model (move it in space, rotate it, zoom in and out, navigate through stages and more). In addition, we can walk around and through the model and review it from all possible angles. HoloDeepEX identifies all structural items when we target them and provides information.
Figure 9.13.8: HoloDeepEX model viewed with augmented reality glasses
Excavations are often constructed next to existing buildings that can potentially exert significant loads on the retaining system. Thus, building loads have to be properly accounted for. Estimating building loads can be a very time-consuming effort. DeepEX can make such estimations much easier with the building wizard option.
In DeepEX, a building can be added on the model area as a 3D external load item. We can define the building dimensions (X and Y direction widths, superstructure height, basement depth, number of floors), position, number of floors, number of columns, loads per floor, walls and footing properties and more (see section 3.26).
On the bottom of the Building Wizard dialog (Figure 9.14.1), we can define if any of the exterior walls is continuous, as well some additional damage assessment options. We can define whether the damage assessment will not be performed, as well as if it is going to be based on the selected design section or an already created 3D Model (3D Frame Analysis module should be purchased for this option to be available). The building damage assessment additional optional module is required to perform damage assessment analysis. From the Stability+ tab of DeepEX we can select and define the building damage calculation options (Figure 9.14.2).
Figure 9.14.1: Selection to perform building damage assessment (Building wizard)
Figure 9.14.2: Define building damage assessment calculation options
Figure 9.14.3: Model – 2D section without building
Figure 9.14.4: Model – 2D section with building
Figure 9.14.5: Building on the 3D model area
When the option to perform building damage assessment is selected (the building damage assessment additional optional module is required), the software will calculate the settlement and displacement below the wall because of the nearby excavation, and it will also perform the damage assessment, calculating and presenting strains, displacements and damage categories of all building walls, in each construction stage.
In order to perform the building damage assessment, it is important to press the button “Analyze All Design Sections”, even if our building is in one section only.
Figure 9.15.1: Option to perform Building Damage Assessment calculations
After the analysis is performed, we can access the damage assessment results by right-clicking on the building in the 2D section model area and select the option “Damage Assessment Results”. In the summary table that appears, we can review the most critical results among all walls and stages, the most critical results of each wall among all stages and the results per wall/per stage.
Figure 9.15.2: Option to open damage assessment results
Figure 9.15.3: Results and calculated parameters (maximum values - all walls and stages)
Figure 9.15.4: Results and calculated parameters (maximum values for each wall - all stages)
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